Gynecological pain is common and is frequently undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Pelvic pain can lead to impairment in home and work activities. Intimacy is frequently hampered due to pain which can negatively affect self-image, relationships and opportunities for conception. Diagnosis of the cause of pain generally requires laparoscopy. Once the cause of pain is ascertained, a directed treatment plan is possible. Generally, amelioration is initiated at the time of surgery through removal of inflammatory tissues and adhesions. Medical management typically follows surgery and may consist of suppression of ovulation and use of short or long-acting pain medications. Ongoing support is essential to improve well-being and functionality.